Another common argument is: " If you aren't doing something wrong then you don't have anything to fear. However, if they are following the law the surveillance would not affect them.
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With the advent of programs such as the Total Information Awareness program and ADVISE , technologies such as high speed surveillance computers and biometrics software, and laws such as the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act , governments now possess an unprecedented ability to monitor the activities of their subjects. Fears such as this have led to numerous lawsuits such as Hepting v. Some critics state that the claim made by supporters should be modified to read: "As long as we do what we're told, we have nothing to fear.
For instance, a person who is part of a political group which opposes the policies of the national government, might not want the government to know their names and what they have been reading, so that the government cannot easily subvert their organization, arrest, or kill them. Other critics state that while a person might not have anything to hide right now, the government might later implement policies that they do wish to oppose, and that opposition might then be impossible due to mass surveillance enabling the government to identify and remove political threats.
Further, other critics point to the fact that most people do have things to hide.
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For example, if a person is looking for a new job, they might not want their current employer to know this. Also if an employer wishes total privacy to watch over their own employee and secure their financial information it may become impossible, and they may not wish to hire those under surveillance. The most concern of detriment is securing the lives of those who live under total surveillance willingly, educating the public to those under peaceful watch while identifying terrorist and those who use the same surveillance systems and mechanisms in opposition to peace, against civilians, and to disclose lives removed from the laws of the land.
In addition, a significant risk of private data collection stems from the fact that this risk is too much unknown to be readily assessed today. Storage is cheap enough to have data stored forever, and the models using which it will be analyzed in a decade from now cannot reasonably be foreseen. In December , the Government of China took steps to oppose widespread surveillance by security-company cameras, webcams, and IP Cameras after tens-of-thousands were made accessible for internet viewing by IT company Qihoo .
Kate Martin, of the Center For National Security Studies said of the use of military spy satellites being used to monitor the activities of U.
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Some point to the blurring of lines between public and private places, and the privatization of places traditionally seen as public such as shopping malls and industrial parks as illustrating the increasing legality of collecting personal information. Unlike automatic fingerprint reading, which requires an individual to press a finger against a machine, this technique is subtle and requires little to no consent. Some critics, such as Michel Foucault , believe that in addition to its obvious function of identifying and capturing individuals who are committing undesirable acts, surveillance also functions to create in everyone a feeling of always being watched, so that they become self-policing.
This allows the State to control the populace without having to resort to physical force, which is expensive and otherwise problematic. With the development of digital technology, individuals have become increasingly perceptible to one another, as surveillance becomes virtual.
Online surveillance is the utilization of the internet to observe one's activity. In her book Superconnected , Chayko differentiates between two types of surveillance: vertical and horizontal. Such powerful authorities often justify their incursions as a means to protect society from threats of violence or terrorism. Some individuals question when this becomes an infringement on civil rights.
Horizontal diverges from vertical surveillance as the tracking shifts from an authoritative source to an everyday figure, such as a friend, coworker, or stranger that is interested in one's mundane activities. In addition, Simone Browne argues that surveillance wields an immense racializing quality such that it operates as "racializing surveillance.
Numerous civil rights groups and privacy groups oppose surveillance as a violation of people's right to privacy. There have been several lawsuits such as Hepting v. Department of Justice by groups or individuals, opposing certain surveillance activities. People vs. Diaz was a court case in the realm of cell phone privacy, even though the decision was later overturned.
In this case, Gregory Diaz was arrested during a sting operation for attempting to sell ecstasy. During his arrest, police searched Diaz's phone and found more incriminating evidence including SMS text messages and photographs depicting illicit activities. During his trial, Diaz attempted to have the information from his cell phone removed from evidence, but the courts deemed it as lawful and Diaz's appeal was denied on the California State Court level and, later, the Supreme Court level.
Just three short years after, this decision was overturned in the case Riley vs. California Riley vs. California was an extremely vital Supreme Court case in which a man was arrested for his involvement in a drive-by shooting. A few days after the shooting the police made an arrest of the suspect Riley , and, during the arrest, the police searched him. However, this search was not only of Riley's person, but also the police opened and searched his cell phone, finding pictures of other weapons, drugs, and of Riley showing gang signs. In court, the question arose whether searching the phone was lawful or if the search was protected by the 4th amendment of the constitution.
The decision held that the search of Riley's cell phone during the arrest was illegal, and that it was protected by the 4th Amendment. Countersurveillance is the practice of avoiding surveillance or making surveillance difficult. Developments in the late twentieth century have caused counter surveillance to dramatically grow in both scope and complexity, such as the Internet, increasing prevalence of electronic security systems , high-altitude and possibly armed UAVs , and large corporate and government computer databases.
Inverse surveillance is the practice of the reversal of surveillance on other individuals or groups e. Well-known examples are George Holliday 's recording of the Rodney King beating and the organization Copwatch , which attempts to monitor police officers to prevent police brutality. Counter-surveillance can be also used in applications to prevent corporate spying, or to track other criminals by certain criminal entities. It can also be used to deter stalking methods used by various entities and organizations.
Sousveillance is inverse surveillance, involving the recording by private individuals, rather than government or corporate entities.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about surveillance in espionage. For health surveillance, see Health surveillance. For surveillance of electronic computer systems, see Computer and network surveillance. Main article: Computer surveillance. Main articles: Phone surveillance and Lawful interception. Main article: Closed-circuit television.
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Main article: Biometrics. Further information: Surveillance aircraft. Main article: Corporate surveillance. Main article: Reconnaissance satellite. Main article: Microchip implant human. See also: GPS tracking. See also: United States v. Spy Factory, Inc. For other uses, see Stakeout disambiguation. See also: Hawthorne effect. Main article: List of films featuring surveillance. Scientific American. Retrieved March 13, Electronic Frontier Foundation website. Archived from the original on May 3, Retrieved March 14, September 20, USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved March 19, ZDNet News.
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